Universitas Indonesia Conferences, 7th International Symposium of Journal Antropologi Indonesia

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The Struggle of Bineka Citizenship and Inequality in Post-Indonesian Reformasi
Ahmad Suadi

Building: Soegondo Building
Room: 709
Date: 2019-07-25 10:30 AM – 12:00 PM
Last modified: 2019-06-21


Various incidents to the present of disintegration and violence since independence - even colonialism - in Indonesia have originated from unequal treatment of marginalized groups and regions which eventually became marginal. Papua, even though an agreement was reached through the establishment of the Special Autonomy Law No. 21/2001, which is very complete,remains a very serious problem. In Papua, separatism has returned, even though the government has poured enormous funds from the Special Autonomy Fund, regular funds, and other affirmation funds and also infrastructure development policies to connect isolated areas and to secure fuel and logistics prices.

The emergence of this "new separatism" has occurred because the most important elements of Otonomi Khusus (Otsus), namely equality and fair treatment and freedom of opinion and assembly, as carried out in the process of drafting the Special Autonomy Bill, have not been implemented. The realization of the Special Autonomy Fund and the flushing of other affirmative funds to Papua is accompanied by inequality and stigmatization of the Papuans, restraint of freedom of opinion and assembly, and the neglect of the enforcement of human rights as promised in the Special Autonomy Law. Other important elements such as reconciliation, local political party, strengthening traditional institutions and reduction of the MRP role were also ignored.

This paper intends to present an inventory of crucial elements of equality from the Special Autonomy Bill in the discussion and agreement at the DPR in the era of President Gus Dur, which provided the basis for the signing of the Special Autonomy Law which gave birth to Bineka Citizenship. There are three important elements in Bineka Citizenship: recognition which is the key to humanitarian equality and citizenship; respect that is manifested in the form of freedom of opinion, assembly and protection of security for the Papuans; and, institutional transformation of state institutions to accommodate all their aspirations through the Otsus Law.

This paper will conclude with a recommendation that the evaluation of development in Papua, which has now given birth to a form of "new separatism", returns to an important issue, namely equality and others whose elements already exist in the Special Autonomy Law.