Universitas Indonesia Conferences, 7th International Symposium of Journal Antropologi Indonesia

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Contextual Education for Indigenous People in Indonesia
Sugih Biantoro

Building: Soegondo Building
Room: 709
Date: 2019-07-25 08:30 AM – 10:00 AM
Last modified: 2019-06-21


The existence of Indigenous peoples has been recognised by the Indonesian constitution. It is now assured not only by several pieces of sectoral legislation, but also ministerial and regional regulations. As stipulated in the Article 5 Paragraph 3 of the National Education System Law (Undang-Undang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional), they are entitled to special education services. The Minister of Education and Culture Decree No. 72 of 2013 concerning the Implementation of Special Service Education can be seen as the government’s strong statement that Indigenous peoples should be included in the National Education System. Currently, the Minister of Education and Culture is still formulating a National Special Education Service Standard in which special services for Indigenous communities are one of its foci.

This study aims at formulating proper educational models for Indigenous peoples in accordance with the aforementioned standard. Data were collected through interviews, focus group discussions, and observations. The study demonstrates that there are two distinctive models of Indigenous people’s education, namely conservative and integrated models. The former is a model which has been intentionally designed to be separated from the formal education system. This model has been implemented by Sokola Institut (Makekal Hulu, Jambi), Aliansi Masyarakat Adat Nusantara (AMAN), and Punan Samariot. The latter model has been devised as a complement to formal education. The model offers comprehensive contents of local traditions and environmental awareness. SDN 01 Cirompang (Lebak, Banten) is a great example of the model. The study concludes that the scheme for Indigenous peoples, as clearly imposed in the Decree, can only be carried out through the integrated model. However, the other model should be encouraged and, furthermore, be facilitated. At the same time, it is best not to compel these schools with an obligation to fulfil the national education standard requirements.

Keywords: Contextual Education, Indigenous People, Standardization